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"I was delighted to find this. You guys are scientists and spiritualists. Kudos!"
"Simplicity is a great virtue but it requires hard work to achieve it and education to appreciate it. And, to make matters worse: complexity sells better." -- Edsger W. Dijkstra
"Perfect" human hearing spans frequencies 20 Hertz to 20 kiloHertz, a range of 11 octaves and larger than any musical instrument. It is also finely sensitive to air pressure modulations over many orders of magnitude, from as minute as 20 micropascals (the "noise of silence") to over 150 deciBels (a jet engine at 100 feet). Hearing is our most perceptive sense by far. At least one-third of the human brain is related in some way to sound perception or creation. Sound is intrinsic with life.
Sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.
"We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but habit." ~Aristotle
"If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration." - Nikola Tesla
"...music seems to be the most immediate of all the arts...Music possesses us...it really is as if some 'other' has entered not just our bodies but our intentions, taking us over." - Robert Jourdain, MUSIC, THE BRAIN AND ECSTASY (1997), p 328
"Music directly represents the passions of states of the soul - gentleness, anger, courage, temperance...if one listens to the wrong kind of music he will become the wrong kind of person..." - ARISTOTLE, Politics, 8, 1340
"...through foolishness they, the people, deceived themselves into thinking that there was no right or wrong in music, that it was to be judged good or bad by the pleasure it gave...a spirit of law breaking." - The Laws of Plato, Vol III, Univ. Chicago Press, 700c 1980 p 86
"If one should desire to know whether a kingdom is well-governed, if its morals are good or bad, the quality of its music will furnish the answer." - Confucius
"The introduction of a new kind of music must be shunned as imperilling the whole state." - PLATO, REPUBLIC
"Music is the mediator between intellectual and sensuous life...the one spiritual entrance into the higher world." - Ludwig van Beethoven
"Modern art is largely a matter of deformaties. Modern music is a matter of deformaties, but we have grown so accustomed to it that we assume that these deformaties are normal. They are not." - Manly P. Hall, video
"...[Oliver Heaviside] was a first-rate oddity. He was always half-ready to eat out of garbage cans. Basically...part of the reason why he died was that the neighbor kids stoned him with rocks, everyday. So he couldn't get out of his house. So Heaviside got to meet, like everyone else, the wonderful world of electrical study. If you go through all these inventors, you find out that electrical study really is the tale of Prometheus. You will be rewarded - ha! - the eagle will peck your liver, until you die. So, (chuckles) that is the way it works with the world of electrical study. It is not a business I recommend anyone getting into..." Eric Dollard
Added and updated fervently, all materials are presented in fair use for research and educational purposes. To prevent unrestricted dissemination of certain copyrighted materials, login may be required for access. Items posted are for educational and research purposes and do not necessarily represent our viewpoint. Don't overlook the Audiology Musicology Blog which also contains much quality information; newer materials usually appear in the blog before being added below.
From here -- "Tubes vs. transistors & quantization distortion: After reading an article in a 1987 issue of Discover magazine about the popularity of tube amps I decided to try building one using TV tubes and then later, HiFi tubes... Before this I was experimenting with solid state audio circuits and tubes seemed to give me what I was looking for. One day while pondering the tube vs. transistor sound mystery I tried visualizing the inner workings of tubes and transistors. With tubes, amplification seems to take place (almost) entirely in a vacuum and classical electromagnetic theory seems adequate to explain most of it. With transistors you basically have to start with quantum mechanics to explain how they work. An idea came to me, could it be possible that solid state electronics produce a kind of quantization or quantizing error distortion because of their quantum mechanical nature? It seemed to me solid state sound had an unnatural characteristic similar to the digital sound from CDs. I wrote to Ed Dell in 1990, Amateur Audio Publications, Inc. editor, about this idea and he published my letter, in Glass Audio magazine and he wrote back and told me about some publications by Malcolm Hawksford about some work on "the molecular and atomic activity within solid state devices as well as work on quantizing problems". I looked through some books in the library about transistors and didn't find much that would lead me to the answer. I did find something about traps in semiconductors and a graph that had steps in the audio region, but don't know if that's related or not. After finding Ed Dell's 1990 letter recently while looking through some old papers, I decided to look on the internet to see if there are any articles by Hawksford available. I found a site with a collection of them and one article of his which discusses quantizing distortion in transistors. Looking through the equations, it appears to me that it doesn't have anything directly related to quantum mechanics in them. The website is http://www.essex.ac.uk/csee/research/audio_lab/malcolms_publications.html"
M. J. Hawksford (PDF "J7 FUZZY DISTORTION IN ANALOG AMPLIFIERS: A LIMIT TO INFORMATION TRANSMISSION?", M.O.J. Hawksford, JAES, vol.31, no.10, pp.745-754, October 1983):
"Where amplifiers are operated at high signal levels, other mechanisms of dynamic distortion ebcome significant. Nonlinear delay modulation (NLDM) of the signal will occur due to the dynamic variation of transistor parameters with signal: Modulation of collector-base capacitance with collector-base voltage, the shift of small-signal bandwidth with collector current, and general parametric changes when devices are thermally exercised are all contributory factors. ...
"Specifically the area of greatest concern is that of subjective clarity or what may be usefully described as signal transparency: the ability to resolve fine signal detail, especially in the presence of complex high-level signal components. There appears to be a distinction between distortion mechanisms that "color" the signal, thus adding their own character, and distortions that corrupt fine signal detail.
"...low-level signals in transistor stages are associated with extremely small transfer of charge into the base of the input transistor. The basic analysis indicates that...the signal amplitude generally has greater effect on the charge transferred for recombination than that charge having direct control of the collector current... Nevertheless both calculations yield results of only a few electrons. We therefore propose a theory that partial signal quantization is the fundamental process that sets an inherent bound to signal transparency through a transistor stage. Both equations...support the probably existence of significant granularity...a form of amplitude quantization and...and association with 1/f noise. It is also proposed that signal interaction with inherent nonlinearities in transistors, together with even small levels of interference from power supplies, neighboring circuitry, or undesired signal coupling (such as poor ground line design), can easily corrupt such minute signals and that such corruption should be interpreted as modification to these low charge levels.""
Auditory Perception of Nonlinear Distortion ( PDF ) by Lidia W. Lee and Earl R. Geddes (115th Audio Engineering Society Convention, 10 October 2003). Abstract: A new approach to the perception of distortion was recently proposed by Geddes (2002). Psychoacoustical data were measured, correlation and regression analysis were applied to examine the relationship and predictive value of this new metric to the subjective assessment of sound quality of nonlinear distortion. Furthermore, conventional metrics such as total harmonic distortion (TDH) and intermodulation distortion (IMD) were also compared. Thirtyfour listeners participated in a listening task, rating twenty-one stimuli using a 7-point scale. No significant relationships were observed when comparing the subjective ratings with TDH and IMD metrics. Significant correlation (r=0.95, p<.001) was observed between the subjective ratings and the new proposed GedLee (Gm)metric. Furthermore, robust predictive power was verified utilizing the GedLee metric. GedLee metric has demonstrated remarkable potential to quantify sound quality ratings of nonlinear distortion.
"...there's a very nebulous thing [about music]: No one can say why it affects one person positively, [while it may have negative or] no effect at all on someone else. I, for instance, am immune to Mozart, but I love Wagner. How could--there must be something wrong with me to be immune to Mozart, because it's obviously so brilliant. But that' just the way music works. And so the audience is not a random selection, and the critics are. And 'The Real Thing' is the response of the audience in the seats [versus whatever critics may think or write]." --Stewart Copeland interview with Bob Costas, 1990 youtube
What makes music sound 'good'? and other research, from Dr. Dmitri Tymoczko. youtube presentation on the geometry of music: "Random paint splashed on a canvas is much less appalling than random notes plunked down on a piano."
Manly P. Hall, Art and Aesthetics -- Pythagoras on the therapeutic value of music.
Manly P. Hall -- Mystical Content in Scientific Knowledge.
Just outside the borders of conventional science lies the idea of plant perception or biocommunication in plant cells. This is the belief that plants are sentient, that they experience pain, pleasure, or emotions such as fear and affection, and that they have the ability to communicate with humans and other forms of life in a recognizable manner. While plants can communicate through chemical signals, and certainly have complex responses to stimuli, the belief that they possess advanced affective or cognitive abilities is not accepted by mainstream science. This is not to say, however, that there isn't evidence to support proponents of the theory.
Beginning in the 1960s, Cleve Backster, an interrogation specialist, caused controversy when he found that plants attached to a polygraph machine4would register intense responses when threatened with harm. Termed the "Backster Effect," the outcome of his numerous experiments was the finding that plants could perceive human thoughts and intentions. In addition, he also found that plants could display memory traits, develop bonds with humans, and respond to the death of organic cells within their environment. All of these experiments led to his theory of "primary perception," which is the main topic of his 2003 book of the same name.
Regardless of the precise mode of perception, it seems people have been exposing plants to sound in aneffort to coax a response for quite some time. Indigenous peoples from around the world have for years used the sound of music and chant to provoke bountiful harvests, and Charles Darwin experimented by performing his bassoon for his Mimosa pudica, or touch-me-not, in order to see if he could stimulate its pinnae into movement.
In the 1950's, Dr. T.C. Singh, head of the department of botany at Annamalai University in India, conducted experiments in which plants were exposed to specific 'ragas' (melodic modes used in Indian classical music) for periods throughout each day. He reported that the fundamental metabolic processes of the plants were accelerated, sometimes over 200% versus the controls, and stated that he had proven "beyond any shadow of doubt that harmonic sound waves affect the growth, flowering, fruiting, and seed-yields of plants."
In the 1960's, botanist and agricultural researcher George E. Smith played Gershwin's "Rhapsody in Blue" twenty-four hours a day to his soybean and corn fields only to find that his seedlings sprouted earlier, the plants were healthier and more robust, and that his musically exposed plants yielded more bushels to the acre (137) than those belonging to the unexposed plot (117). Perplexed at the overwhelming results, Smith speculated that perhaps the sound energy had increased the molecular activity in the corn. Also of interest was that the temperature was inexplicably two degrees higher in front of the loudspeaker and that the edges of the leaves on the cornappeared slightly burned.
By the mid-1960s it was discovered that the use of ultrasonic frequencies (those above 20,000 Hz) affected the germination and growth of test plants such as barley, sunflower, spruce, and Jack pine. These extremely high frequency sounds increased the enzyme activity and respiration in the exposed plants and seeds. Following these findings, Mary Measures and Pearl Weinberger at the University of Ottawa conducted research aimed at measuring whether specific audible frequencies would be as effective as music in enhancing the growth of wheat. During their four-year study they found that the plants responded best to a frequency of 5,000 cycles per second (5,000 Hz), producing an acceleration in growth "so striking that it seemed to promise to double wheat harvests." Confused by the results, Measures and Weinberger contemplated that perhaps sound waves might produce a resonant effect in the plant cells, causing energy to accumulate and increase the plant's metabolism. Soon after, researchers at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro validated the work of Measures and Weinberger by conducting experiments using 'pink noise,' within a range of 20 to 20,000 Hz, to sprout turnips. They found that the germination rate seemed to increase at 4,000 Hz; very close to the 5,000 Hz found by Measures and Weinberger.
The most widespread and controversial research regarding the effects of music on plants began in 1968 with the amateur experiments of organist and mezzo-soprano Dorothy Retallack. Inspired by the work of George E. Smith, Mrs. Retallack decided to try something similar for an experiment in her college biology class. Beginning with experiments that employed only a few musical pitches, she soon moved on to exposing groups of test plants to various genres of music. Her first experiment of this nature subjected plants to both classical and rock music. In addition to growing lovingly toward the sound source, the plants listening to the music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven exhibited thicker root growth, more robust tissues, and flowered quicker than the plants listening to the rock music. This latter group had visibly abnormal and stunted growth, and some had died within two weeks of enduring the 'all-rock' diet.
Retallack continued her experiments using various musical sources from Led Zeppelin and Jimi Hendrix to Bach, Ravi Shankar, and Duke Ellington. After plants exposed to a constant diet of hard rock leaned away from the sound source, Retallack would rotate the plants 180-degrees only to find them soon leaning in the opposite direction! She surmised that this had something to do with the harsh, percussive nature of the music, and conducted further experiments that supported this hypothesis.
Overall, the plants seemed to like classical and jazz, leaning 35-degrees and 20-degrees respectively toward their musical sources. Surprisingly, the plants loved the sitar music of Indian musician Ravi Shankar the most, leaning more thanhalfway to the horizontal at angles in excess of 60-degrees! This is most interesting in light of the positive responses attained by Dr. Singh, also using traditional Indian music on plants.
In 1970, Retallack along with her professor Francis F. Broman prepared a nine page scientific paper entitled, "Response of Growing Plants to a Manipulation of Their Sonic Environment," and were featured on a CBS news program hosted by Walter Cronkite. The on-air exposure was quite a sensation causing much disdain and backlash from the scientific community. Many had issues with the methodology of Retallack's research and thought that the whole idea that plants responded to music was "an excruciating embarrassment."
Much of the controversy surrounding Retallack's research centers on the implication that the data supports sentience in plants, and this is complete anathema to mainstream science. The data however could also be indicative that the proportion of frequency components within the composite musical sound of each individual genre has a distinguishable affect on the physiology of the plants. This is where more detailed research is needed.
After a few decades of silence, there has recently been a slow resurgence of the topic in areas relating to quantum physics and alternative medicine and healing modalities. For instance, in The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicinea study was published by Katherine Creath and Gary Schwartz detailing the effects of music, noise, and healing energy on the germination of okra and zucchini seeds. The musical sound consisted of a 74-minute CD of mostly improvised music performed on a Native American flute, also incorporating sounds of nature such as birds and echoes. In all five experiments, musical sound had a "highly statistically significant effect on the number of seeds sprouted compared to the untreated control," leading to the conclusion that "sound vibrations directly affect living biologic systems, andthat a seed germination bioassay has the sensitivity to enable detection of effects caused by various applied energetic conditions."
So do your plants prefer Haydn to Mozart, or The Stones over the Beatles? For now, the jury is still out. However, there is most definitely viable evidence that, unlike a sentient, aesthetic response to music, plants do respond to the physical components of musical sound in a scientifically repeatable way and this should open the door to further research into the exact properties to which they respond. But who knows, we also may find in the near future that, like us, our plants have their own tastes in music, and so we should all be prepared to start making them mix tapes.
With this experiment, we can safely conclude that the louder the music, the greater the vibrations, and with these stronger vibrations, water and minerals can be more extensively transported around the plant and hence lead to more growth and germination.
Popular Archaeology in its March 5, 2012, issue reports, "This structure is unique in that it is subterranean, created through the removal of an estimated 2,000 tons of stone. Low voices within its walls create eerie, reverberating echoes, and a sound made of words spoken in certain places can be clearly heard throughout all of its three levels. Now, scientists are suggesting that certain sound vibration frequencies created when sound is emitted within its walls are actually altering human brain functions of those within earshot."
Malta's Hypogeum "Oracle Room" where a male voice speaking "vibrates other minds" in the larger chamber at 110-111 Hertz. The spirals are reminiscent of the Meru Foundation, and Daniel Winter's extensive research into sacred geometry.
Linda Eneix, Mediterranean Inst. of Ancient Civilizations (Sarasota, FL): 1920 "was the last time National Geographic covered Malta's temples. Quote from that 1920 article: 'A word spoken (by male, female voice doesn't perform the effect) in this room is magnified a hundredfold and is audible throughout the entire structure. The effect upon the credulous can be imagined when the oracle spoke and the words came thundering forth through the dark and mysterious place with terrifying impressiveness.'"
It's been found by a study of physics actually, that many of these chambers resonate at a certain frequency and create what's known as a standing wave, which is a particular wave where the sound bounces back and covers itself. The range for the megalithic stone structures of New Grange and Wayland Smithy in the U. K. - these enclosed passage tombs is between 90-120 Hz (hertz). This is within the range of a male voice. The Malta Hypogeum, it's been found by some techno-savvy musicians, vibrates at the same frequency range, but principally it's the 110-111 Hz range. That number seems to trigger brain activity in a particular way. Sound generated, even a tone with a headset, has been shown in the laboratory to change the brain activity shifting from the language center over to the other side of the brain and firing up the creative center in the part of the brain that deals with mood and emotional processing. This 110 Hertz is equal to an A2 in music. It's a bass baritone, it's a very easy note for a baritone to achieve. Imagine singing or toning that note in a resonant chamber, getting all this sound bouncing off the stone walls, apparently was impacting on their brains whether they knew it or not.'
Why 110 Hz? A study by Ian Cook in the March 2008 issue of Time and Mind, reported: "In a pilot project, 30 healthy adults listened to tones at 90, 100, 110, 120, and 130 Hz while brain activity was monitored with electroencephalography (EEG). Activity in the left temporal region was found to be significantly lower at 110 Hz than at other frequencies. Additionally, the pattern of asymmetric activity over the prefrontal cortex shifted from one of higher activity on the left at most frequencies to rightsided dominance at 110 Hz. These findings are compatible with relative deactivation of language centers and a shift in prefrontal activity that may be related to emotional processing. These intriguing pilot study findings suggest that the acoustic properties of ancient structures may influence human brain function, and suggest that chanting might have been used to enhance right brain activities."
Acoustic Properties of Limestone: Limestone has particular acoustic properties, and the Greeks knew this. They chose limestone to line the seats in their amphitheaters because of its ability to transfer the sound. Where did they get that information? Maybe they found out for themselves, maybe they got it from somebody that came before them. In the April 2007 Journal of the Acoustics Society of America, Georgia Institute of Technology researchers reported what made the ancient limestone amphitheater of Epidaurus in Greece an acoustic marvel were the rows of limestone seats. "At Epidaurus the efficient acoustics filter low-frequency background noises like the murmur of a crowd and reflects the high-frequency noises of the performers on stage off the seats and back toward the seated audience member, carrying an actor's voice all the way to the back rows of the theater. Frequencies up to 500 Hz were held back while frequencies above 500 Hz were allowed to ring out. The corrugated surface of the seats was creating an effect similar to the ridged acoustics padding on walls or insulation in a parking garage. The human brain is capable of reconstructing the missing human voice frequencies through a phenomenon called virtual pitch."
Mediterranean Institute of Ancient Civilizations: http://www.ancientmed.org/ -- Stonehenge, England, The Guardian: "Salford scientists reveal the sound of Stonehenge": http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/the-northerner -- BBC: "Stonehenge design was inspired by sounds": http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17073206 -- Georgia Tech, "Limestone Seats Helped Ancient Greeks Hear From Back Row": http://www.science20.com/news/limestone_seats_helped_ancient_greeks_hear_from_back_row
Musicians and music lovers keen on conspiracy may find this highly interesting: Musical Cult Control by Dr. Leonard Horowitz reveals manipulation of the modern musical scale, specifically that A440 concert tuning was chosen for its comparative tendency to cause 'mass hysteria'. See also James Tobias' research paper: "Composing for the Media: Hanns Eisler and Rockefeller Foundation Projects in Film Music, Radio Listening, and Theatrical Sound Design" ( PDF archive ) The paper notes Theodor Adorno's (involved with The Beatles) "Composing for the Films" (Oxford University Press 1947) is a standard textbook reference. Interesting to hear musical scale changing over time: Beethoven's Eroica opening chords by numerous orchestras.
"With regard to the esoteric qualities of A=432hz:
"When an instrument is tuned to this pitch, notes begin to fall in line with Sacred geometry, i.e. PI, PHI, the fibonacci sequence, the golden ratio...mathematical constants which form the basic building blocks of the universe.
"It is not a stretch for me to envision esoteric effects when resonating with such frequencies. The ancients knew this and resonant frequencies were used in healing, achieving higher levels of consciousness, etc. I personally believe it was this knowledge and use of resonant frequency in which the Egyptians (and other builders of megaliths) moved stones. For an example closer to home (here in the states) check out the Coral castle story in florida.
"Any doubters of the power of resonant frequencies would be wise to study Nikola Tesla's work or Dr. Royal Rife's use of specific frequencies to kill bacteria.
"It IS true that it was N-A-Z-I propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels who instituted the change to the 440 standard. Hmmmm, I find that particularly curious. It is my personal belief that a minor shift away from resonating with universal principles is enough to negate the esoteric power of sound.
"Call me crazy if you will, but as musicians with knowledge of intervals and major/minor harmony, we all know how to manipulate emotions with notes....it follows that there are much greater things that can be done under the right conditions and with the right knowledge."
And by a different poster: "...The Stuttgard Conference of 1834 recommended C264 (A440) as the standard pitch based on Scheibler's studies with the first strobe device. For this reason A440 has been referred to as Stuttgard or Scheibler pitch. ... In 1939, an international conference (not the you-know-whos) recommended that the A above middle C be tuned to 440 Hz. As a technical standard, this was taken up by the International Organization for Standardization in 1955 and reaffirmed by them in 1975 as ISO 16."
Quotes from MUSICAL CULT CONTROL article:
"... musical frequencies most beneficial to health, psychosocial harmony, and world peace have been suppressed."
"This amounts to enslavement for the conduct of genocide. ...Music bioenergetically affects your body chemistry, psychoneuroimmunology, and health. Your body is now vibrating musically, audibly and subliminally, according to an institutionally imposed frequency that resonates in harmony with aggression and in dissonance with love.
"Intensive research into the military and commercial value of compelling 'herd behavior' with music to induce stress, promote diseases, and suppress spirituality..."
"What few people realize, regardless of the type of music played in the Western World, the standard Anglo-American tuning for instruments and voices was instituted at the same time, by the same agents and agencies, advancing acoustic war studies for inducing mass hysteria. ... ultimate power and control is waged bioenergetically (i.e., biospiritually), through frequency modulations or electromagnetic manipulations affecting consciousness and impacting biology, physiology, and human behavior.
"Between World Wars I and II, accelerating during the 1930s, scientific studies in musical frequencies best suited for war-making were funded...A major objective of this war, and profitable population control, research was to determine the musical factors capable of producing psychopathology, emotional distress, and mass hysteria.
"This knowledge best explains why so many musicians intuitively feel better tuning up, or down, a bit sharp or flat, from A=440Hz 'standard tuning.' More natural alternatives [Solfeggio: A=444Hz C=528Hz, and Verdi A=432Hz] have been growing in popularity. Recording artists seek the ultimate musical expression reflected in Divine-human communion. Musicians who are spiritually-sensitive to pitch are compelled instinctively to reject intrusions to pure creativity in harmony with the flow of sacred cosmic energy.
"These findings offer a most reasonable, simple, pleasant, and powerful remedy residing in restoring naturally preferred frequencies to music. Instruments and voices tuned to A=444Hz frequency are far more acoustically pleasing, instinctively attractive, kinesthetically stimulating, spiritually refreshing, scientifically linked to genetic repair, and arguably, even resonating pure love."
"Many musicians, mathematicians, physicians, physicists, and even geneticists, now celebrate the emergence of truth about A=444Hz (C(5)=528Hz) as an apparent carrier wave of love, broadcasting universally from the heart of the electromagnetic energy matrix. The vast majority of objective investigators now view these revelations as an opportunity to rediscover our spiritual roots in music, in accordance with an accelerating Spiritual Renaissance. The emergence of this knowledge is perfectly timed to remedy otherwise impossible problems imposed on the world by unelected leaders of economic and geopolitical chaos.
"Thus, musicians, vocalists, and audiences are urged to discuss these findings, reject the militarization of music that has been secretly administered, and retune instruments, voices, and ears to frequencies most sustaining and healing. Restoring integrity to the performing arts and sciences this way will impact populations most beneficially."
Water vibrated by Metal
Water vibrated by Mozart
May 26th 2013 - Cymatics featured on Discovery Channel
The Discovery Channel in the USA and Channel 5 in the UK, recently aired a documentary titled "The Da Vinci Code: The True Story", in which the truth behind Dan Brown's novel is revealed. Aspects of the chapel were featured in Dan Brown's novel, The Da Vinci Code. The documentary features, among other items, the famous Rosslyn Cubes, a series of 213 carved cuboids that decorate the Lady Chapel in Edinburgh's famous Rosslyn Chapel. Each cube carries a cymatic pattern in raised relief; many people over the last few decades have attempted to decode the patterns to reveal what was thought to be music, each cymatic pattern representing a musical note.
No one had succeeded until father and son team, Thomas and Stuart Mitchell, focussed their considerable musical talents on the challenge. The secret of the cubes was indeed musical and the music that they decoded has been named the Rosslyn Motet. The film maker asked CymaScope.com if we could confirm Stuart and Thomas' musical code, on-camera. Using an electromechanical Chladni plate we were able to find patterns that strongly resembled the patterns-versus-frequencies discovered by the Mitchells. This exciting development has showcased cymatics to millions of viewers and is sure to help popularize cymatics as an emergent science.
The patterns we confirmed can be seen on Thomas Mitchell's web site.
The Rosslyn Motet music is available for download.
The full "The Da Vinci Code: The True Story" documentary is available to view on YouTube.
The weaponization of sound: TED Talk video with an inventor of silent sound spread spectrum type technology. Sound that doesn't emanate from the speaker surface but materializes from high-frequency beat patterns in the air along along a LASER-straight, focused beam that does not fade with the inverse square law or suffer air-related distortions. Pinpoint sound destinations. True binaural playback at great distances. Turn up above about 80dB and the air itself begins to distort the sound being transmitted, in fashion of doppler modification.
"War is the principal motivational force for the development of science at every level, from the abstractly conceptual to the narrowly technological. Modern society places a high value on "pure" science, but it is historically inescapable that all the significant discoveries that have been made about the natural world have been inspired by the real or imaginary military necessities of their epochs. The consequences of the discoveries have indeed gone far afield, but war has always provided the basic incentive." --Report From Iron Mountain
... a story describing how a 13-year-old Norwegian boy was saved from a wolf attack by playing a Megadeth song on his phone. More details have emerged and it turns out the boy actually prevented the attack by playing a tune by Creed. Walter Eikrem, who lives in the town of Rakkestad, was walking home from school when four wolves entered his path. Eikrem was listening to Creed's "Overcome" and he decided to remove his headphones and turn the volume up to try and keep the wolves away, according to NME.com. He said that the animals "didn't really get scared, they just turned around and simply trotted away." Although wolf attacks are not common in Norway, the animals are often spotted in the countryside. Eikrem remembered some advice he had learned previously about how to survive a wolf encounter: "The worst thing you can do is run away because doing so just invites the wolves to chase you down," he said.
See also Michael Walton's research into cymatics, and watch John Stewart Reed on TED: "An almost magical tool...a looking glass into a hidden world. ...sound does have form, and we've seen that it can affect matter and cause form within matter..."
Cymatic Experiments - Harmonics - Atomic Alignment - Sacred Geometry - Nature's Art - Visualizing "OM" and Gregorian Chants recorded in the Great Pyramid
Writing in the April 18 issue of Science, the trio has outlined a method called "geometrical music theory" that translates the language of musical theory into that of contemporary geometry. They take sequences of notes, like chords, rhythms and scales, and categorize them so they can be grouped into "families." They have found a way to assign mathematical structure to these families, so they can then be represented by points in complex geometrical spaces, much the way "x" and "y" coordinates, in the simpler system of high school algebra, correspond to points on a two-dimensional plane.
DataIsNature -- "Some years a back I remember being drawn to fine circular geometric patterns being formed in a glass of water on a table in a room resonating to the bassline of a Roland TB-303 Synth. The intrinsic geometric forms found in nature, the microscopic and macroscopic also are also being perpetrated through invisible forces such as sound waves. Hans Jenny pioneered the study of wave phenomena, and named the art/science Cymatics - derived from the Greek Kyma or kymatika meaning matters pertaining to waves. Over a period of years he animated dust particles, liquids and Iron fillings using sine-wave vibrations within the audible range. All too familiar patterns begin to be formed in these substances as a result of the sound shaping form. In 1967 Jenny published the book 'Cymatics - The Structure and Dynamics of Waves and Vibrations'. Moving on from the use of sound generators Jenny eventually invented his own machine for producing very precisely controlled oscillations. The Tonoscope could allow very exact and reproducible experiments to be carried out - at its core were a set of crystal oscillators. Hans Jenny noted to similarity between his sonic patterns and the patterns found all around us and concluded that biological evolution was a result of vibrations - if not connected to it. The science of visualising sound waves has a history and goes back further then Jenny beginning with Ernst Chladni. Chladni found a way to visualise sound waves by drawing a violin bow across the edge of flat plates covered with sand, the patterns he produced go by the name of Chladni figures. 'Symmetry and harmonics' by Joost Rekveld (click on 'texts') explores many of these ideas and is a great preliminary reader on the history of visualising sound. He importantly draws connections between the early experimenters and later work by filmmakers such as Mary Ellen Bute and Norman McLaren who used oscilloscopes to generate moving images. It's also interesting to note certain similarities to the geometries of some recent symmetrical generative art. Applet demonstrating Chladni figures."
Set any tuner so that A4 = 444 Hz (instead of A4 = 440 Hz), then retune each subsequent string to this new A4 = 444 Hz base note. Do not tune to an A flat: go a little sharp, but not quite a half tone. A4 = 444 Hz (instead of A4 = 440 Hz) gives a C5 = 528.008 Hz.
"528 Hz ... has been mathematically proven fundamental to all sacred geometry and cosmology. It is reported to repair damaged DNA. It is C5 on the ancient diatonic scale [when A4 = 444 Hz, versus A4 = 440 Hz of "standard tuning"]. It is the third note, MI tone, of the original Solfeggio scale credited for producing miracles...
"There is evidence that ELF magnetic waves can affect brain waves. This set of experiments was designed to study the effects of ELF rotating magnetic fields on the brain.
"The specific ELF frequencies I was interested in studying are 6-10 Hertz. These frequencies are the same as those produced by the human brain in the theta and alpha states. Generally, specific brain wave frequency ranges can be associated with mood or thought patterns. Frequencies below 8 Hertz are considered theta waves. While these seem to be some of the least understood frequencies, they also seem to be associated with creative, insightful thought. When an artist or scientist has the "aha" experience, there's a good chance he or she is in theta. Alpha frequencies are from 8 to 12 Hertz and are commonly associated with relaxed, meditative states. Most people are in an alpha state during the short time immediately before they fall asleep. Alpha waves are strongest during that twilight state when we're half asleep and half awake. Beta frequencies (above 12 Hertz) coincide with our most "awake" analytical thinking. If you are solving a math problem, you're brain is working at beta frequencies. Most of our waking hours as adults are spent in the beta state.
"Each ELF exposure consisted of a ten second, sine-wave transmission separated from one another by 45 - 60 seconds of no exposure. The voltage fed to the coil was 3.1 VAC (RMS). The coil was positioned 18? in front of the subjects head. The outputs from the ELF transmitter (function generator) and the brain wave monitor were fed directly into the computer A to D board, allowing both to be displayed on the computer monitor (and recorded on disk) simultaneously. The sampling rate of the A to D converter was set at 2000 samples per second for the entire experiment. This was sufficient to visually detect differences of .1 Hertz between the ELF and brain wave frequencies. Subjects were not told when a transmission was beginning. However, at the end of each transmission, they were asked to "report". This was their current relaxation level based on the zero to ten scale. They also reported any feelings they had experienced and these were recorded verbatim. Twenty-one frequencies were presented to each subject (from 6 to 10 Hertz in increments of .2 Hertz. For half the subjects, these frequencies were randomly selected. For the other subjects, they began at 10 Hertz and were decreased by .2 Hertz with each transmission. Subjects were not told the order of frequencies that would be presented to them.
"Examination of the computer data revealed substantial differences between subjects. Some subjects showed lock-on (entrainment) over a wide frequency range, while other subjects showed no lock-on whatsoever. In general, lock-on occurred most frequently from 8.6 to 10 Hertz and less frequently below 8.6 Hertz.
"One subject displayed lock-on for all frequencies from 7.4 to 10 Hertz. Two subjects displayed no lock-on over the entire frequency range. While I did not test a sufficient number of subjects to be statistically significant, I suspect that susceptibility to ELF entrainment follows the normal (bell-shaped) curve. At this time, I do not have any hypothesis that would allow us to predict who is susceptible and who is not.
"Several interesting observations were readily apparent. Lock-on generally occurred very rapidly, within a quarter of a second in most cases. If lock-on did not occur at a specific frequency in the first second, it didn't at all. When the brain did lock on, the amplitude of the brain waves increased to nearly double their normal size. This is typical for naturally (non-ELF) produced alpha patterns. The brain locked on to higher frequencies (9-10 Hertz) more readily, and maintained the lock-on for the entire duration of the transmission. As the frequency was lowered (below 8.6 Hertz), lock-on for most subjects occurred in bursts, rather than being continuous. For example, there might be immediate lock-on for two seconds; then the brain would "fight" the ELF frequency for a quarter of a second, and then lock-on again for another few seconds, etc.. I use the word "fight" because it looked like the brain was fighting the ELF to maintain its own frequency. The "fight" was characterized by low amplitude beta frequencies in the 15-20 Hertz range. These may, of course, have simply been analytical type thoughts, but they were not observed when the frequency was in the 9-10 Hertz range. This "fight" became more frequent as the frequency was lowered, until no lock-on was observed at all.
"None of the subjects were able to consciously detect the presence of the ELF field. One female subject was able to detect whenever the field started or ended, but could not accurately say when if it was on or off at any given time. In other words, she was able to detect the change in the magnetic field, but not the presence or absence of the magnetic field itself. She thought she felt it because it aggravated her sinuses. When lock-on occurred, the brain waves lagged behind the transmitted ELF. This appeared to have been the "reaction time" of the brain to the ELF waves (approximately 60-80 milliseconds). More accurate experimentation is needed to explore this relationship.
"Subjects verbatim reports were quite revealing. (Keep in mind that none of the subjects actually said they felt the ELFs.) The most common verbatim reports occurred between 8.6 and 9.6 Hertz. Common statements were subtle "tingling" sensations in the fingers, arms, legs, teeth, and roof of the mouth. Two subjects reported a "metallic" feeling in their mouth. One subject reported a "tightness" in the chest and another subject reported a "tightness" in the stomach. Several subjects also reported sensations when the ELF frequency was between 6 and 7 Hertz. The verbatim responses in this range were "ringing" in the ears, "flushed" face, "fatigued", "tightening" in the chest and "increasing" pulse.
"Lock-on occurred at lower frequencies more often when the transmitted frequencies were progressively lowered, rather than randomly presented. It would seem that the brain prefers a gradual lowering of frequency rather than a sudden or abrupt change in frequency. This may have been due to the extremely short duration of each transmission (10 seconds). It may be that this effect would disappear if longer transmission times were used.
"There was no significant correlation between subjects reported level of relaxation and the ELF frequency or the occurrence of lock-on. Again, this may have been due to the extremely short duration of each transmission.
"It is clear from these experiments that brain waves do in fact lock on to artificially produced ELFs in the 6 - 10 Hertz range. It is equally clear that the 10 second transmission was not sufficient to alter subjects moods to any consistent degree.
"Since my original experiment, I have continued to study the interaction of ELF's and brain waves. These mini-experiments were conducted more informally than my original experiment and the observations are based on only one or two subjects. They should be considered only observations until confirmed by additional study.
"A sine wave produces lock-on more readily than a square wave or a triangle wave. A sine wave output produces a rotating magnetic field where there is a gradual build up, collapse and reversal of the field intensity. A square wave output produces a pulsed alternating magnetic field where the build-up, collapse and reversal of the magnetic field is more abrupt.
"The brain is sensitive to a wide range of intensities. I have observed lock-on with power settings down to one half of a milliwatt.
"Psychics and "sensitives" are neither more or less prone to lock-on than anyone else. I have tested two well-known psychics and a Kahuna from Hawaii. While all three subjects produced more alpha that usual, it was not related to the ELF generator and they did not show unusual lock-on. It is interesting to note, that the woman who could "feel" when the field switched off and on (in my first experiment) was one of these psychics.
"Extended exposure to ELF's does alter moods, but the effect is subtle. I was not able to duplicate the "dramatic psychoactive" effect that Robert Beck has reported. Low frequencies (below 8 Hz) seem to produce a general agitation or uneasiness, while higher frequencies (8.6-10 Hz) produce a general feeling of relaxation. These are not profound effects like drug induced mood changes. The subject is not aware of any change in his consciousness or mood. From his perspective, nothing has changed. However, an outside observer can detect subtle changes (e.g. body movement). I have confirmed this by monitoring muscle activity with an EMG monitor.
"I have exposed myself to ELFs for one and two hour durations and have found that the frequencies from 8.6 to 9.8 Hertz to be sleep inducing; however, it is impossible to eliminate the placebo effect from experiments I performed on myself.
"I built and distributed several portable ELF generators for testing. I have received many reports that indicate that falling asleep with the ELF generator operating is probably not a good idea. People don't feel rested when they sleep with the ELF generator on. My personal experience supports this. ELF's may inhibit dreaming which is necessary for normal brain functioning.
"I have found three definite beneficial uses for the ELF generator: a) for relaxation, b) to eliminate jet lag, and c) the elimination of seizures in a dog."
"Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect. J Neurophysiol 83: 3548-3558, 2000. Although it is generally accepted that humans cannot perceive sounds in the frequency range above 20 kHz, the question of whether the existence of such "inaudible" high-frequency components may affect the acoustic perception of audible sounds remains unanswered.
"In this study, we used noninvasive physiological measurements of brain responses to provide evidence that sounds containing high-frequency components (HFCs) above the audible range signicantly affect the brain activity of listeners. We used the gamelan music of Bali, which is extremely rich in HFCs with a nonstationary structure, as a natural sound source, dividing it into two components: an audible low-frequency component (LFC) below 22 kHz and an HFC above 22 kHz. Brain electrical activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured as markers of neuronal activity while subjects were exposed to sounds with various combinations of LFCs and HFCs. None of the subjects recognized the HFC as sound when it was presented alone. Nevertheless, the power spectra of the alpha frequency range of the spontaneous electroencephalogram (alpha-EEG) recorded from the occipital region increased with statistical signicance when the subjects were exposed to sound containing both an HFC and an LFC, compared with an otherwise identical sound from which the HFC was removed (i.e., LFC alone).
"In contrast, compared with the baseline, no enhancement of alpha-EEG was evident when either an HFC or an LFC was presented separately. Positron emission tomography measurements revealed that, when an HFC and an LFC were presented together, the rCBF in the brain stem and the left thalamus increased signicantly compared with a sound lacking the HFC above 22 kHz but that was otherwise identical. Simultaneous EEG measurements showed that the power of occipital alpha-EEGs correlated signicantly with the rCBF in the left thalamus.
"Psychological evaluation indicated that the subjects felt the sound containing an HFC to be more pleasant than the same sound lacking an HFC. These results suggest the existence of a previously unrecognized response to complex sound containing particular types of high frequencies above the audible range. We term this phenomenon the 'hypersonic effect.'
"It is generally accepted that audio frequencies above 20 kHz do not affect human sensory perception since they are beyond the audible range (Durrant and Lovrinc 1977; Snow 1931; Wegel 1922). Thus for example, most of the conventional commercial digital audio formats [e.g., compact disks (CDs) digital audio tapes (DATs), and digital audio broadcasting] have been standardized to a frequency range that does not allow such high-frequency components (HFCs) of sounds to be included. As a premise for determining these formats, several psychological experiments were performed to evaluate sound quality subjectively by means of questionnaires, according to the recommendation of the Comitee Consultatif International Radiophonique (CCIR 1978) or its modified versions.
"Studies by Muraoka et al. (1978) and Plenge et al. (1979), as well as other studies, concluded that listeners did not consciously recognize the inclusion of sounds with a frequency range above 15 kHz as making a difference in sound quality. Nevertheless and interestingly enough, artists and engineers working to produce acoustically perfect music for commercial purposes are convinced that the intentional manipulation of HFC above the audible range can positively affect the perception of sound quality (Neve 1992). Indeed, the Advanced Audio Conference organized by the Japan Audio Society (1999) proposed two next-generation advanced digital audio formats: super audio compact disk (SACD) and digital versatile disk audio (DVD-audio). These formats have a frequency response of up to 100 kHz and 96kHz, respectively. However, the proposal was not based on scientific data about the biological effects of the HFCs that would become available with these advanced formats.
"Although recently there have been several attempts to explore the psychological effect of inaudible HFCs on sound perception using a digital audio format with a higher sampling rate of 96 kHz (Theiss and Hawksford 1997; Yamamoto 1996; Yoshikawa et al. 1995, 1997), none of these studies has convincingly explained the biological mechanism of the phenomenon. This may reflect in part the limitations of the conventional audio engineering approach for determining sound quality, which is solely based on a subjective evaluation obtained via questionnaires.
"There are two factors that may have some bearing on this issue. First, it has been suggested that infrasonic exposure may possibly have an adverse effect on human health (Danielsson and Landstrom 1985), suggesting that the biological sensitivity of human beings may not be parallel with the 'conscious' audibility of air vibration. Second, the natural environment such as tropical rain forests, usually contains sounds that are extremely rich in HFCs over 100 kHz. From an anthropogenetic point of view, the sensory system of human beings exposed to a natural environment would stand a good chance of developing some physiological sensitivity to HFCs. It is premature to conclude that consciously inaudible high-frequency sounds have no effect on the physiological state of listeners.
"In the present study, therefore, we addressed this issue by using quantifiable and reproducible measurements of brain activity. To measure human physiological responses to HFCs, we selected two noninvasive techniques: analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) and positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). These methods have complementary characteristics. EEG has excellent time resolution, is sensitive to the state of human brain functioning, and places fewer physical and mental constraints on subjects than do other techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This is of special importance because some responses might be distorted by a stressful measurement environment itself. On the other hand, PET provides us with detailed spatial information on the neuroanatomical substrates of brain activity. Combining these two techniques with psychological assessments, we provide evidence herein that inaudible high-frequency sounds have a significant effect on humans."
... "We know that the brain has a system of neural pathways dedicated to attention. We know that training these attention networks improves general measures of intelligence. And we can be fairly sure that focusing our attention on learning and performing an art -- if we practice frequently and are truly engaged -- activates these same attention networks. We therefore would expect focused training in the arts to improve cognition generally.
... "The idea that training in the arts improves cognition generally really is not so bold within the context of what we call activity-dependent plasticity, a basic tenet of brain function. It means that the brain changes in response to what you do. Put another way, behavior shapes and sculpts brain networks: What you do in your day-to-day life is reflected in the wiring patterns of your brain and the efficiency of your brain's networks. Perhaps nowhere is this more evident than in your attention networks...
... "...why have scientists been unable to nail down a cause-and-effect relationship between arts education and cognition -- for example, "[X] amount of training in art form [Y] leads to a [Z] percent increase in IQ scores"? Such a relationship is difficult to confirm scientifically because there are so many variables at work; scientists have only begun to look at this relationship in a systematic, rigorous fashion.
"Early tests of the idea that the arts can boost brainpower focused on the so-called "Mozart effect." A letter published in 1993 in the journal Nature held that college students exposed to classical music had improved spatial reasoning skills,2 which are important to success in math and science. This observation set off a wave of marketing hype that continues to this day. Despite numerous efforts, however, scientists have not reliably replicated the phenomenon. Nonetheless, these studies have involved only brief periods of exposure to music, rather than explicit musical training or practice.
"More recent attempts to link arts training with general improvements in cognition have relied on a different approach. Researchers have focused on longer periods of engaged participation and practice in arts training rather than simple exposure to music. For example, in 2004, E. Glenn Schellenberg of the University of Toronto at Mississauga published results from a randomized, controlled study showing that the IQ scores of 72 children who were enrolled in a yearlong music training program increased significantly compared with 36 children who received no training and 36 children who took drama lessons. (The IQ scores of children taking drama lessons did not increase, but these children did improve more than the other groups on ratings of selected social skills.)
"In a study published in the Journal of Neuroscience in March 2009, researchers Ellen Winner of Boston College, Gottfried Schlaug of Harvard University and their colleagues at McGill University used neuroimaging scans to examine brain changes in young children who underwent a four-year-long music training program, compared with a control group of children who did not receive music training.4 In the first round of testing, after 15 months, the researchers found structural changes in brain circuits involved in music processing in the children who received training. They did not find the same changes in the control group. The scientists also found improvements in musically relevant motor and auditory skills, a phenomenon called near transfer. In this case, the improvements did not transfer to measures of cognition less related to music -- termed far transfer. We do not know why far transfer to IQ, for example was found in the Schellenberg study and not in this one.
"Taken as a whole, the findings to date tell us that music training can indeed change brain circuitry and, in at least some circumstances, can improve general cognition. But they leave unsettled the question of under what circumstances training in one cognitive area reliably transfers to improvements in other cognitive skills. From our perspective, the key to transfer is diligence: Practicing for long periods of time and in an absorbed way can cause changes in more than the specific brain network related to the skill. Sustained focus can also produce stronger and more efficient attention networks, and these key networks in turn affect cognitive skills more generally.
Music Prompts Numerous Brain Changes Linked to Emotions and Abstract Decision Making: When you listen to music, much more is happening in your body than simple auditory processing. Music triggers activity in the nucleus accumbens, a part of your brain that releases the feel-good chemical dopamine and is involved in forming expectations. At the same time, the amygdala, which is involved in processing emotion, and the prefrontal cortex, which makes possible abstract decision-making, are also activated, according to new research published in the journal Science.1 Based on the brain activity in certain regions, especially the nucleus accumbens, captured by an fMRI imager while participants listened to music, the researchers could predict how much money the listeners were willing to spend on previously unheard music. As you might suspect, songs that triggered activity in the emotional and intellectual areas of the brain demanded a higher price. Interestingly, the study's lead author noted that your brain learns how to predict how different pieces of music will unfold using pattern recognition and prediction, skills that may have been key to our evolutionary progress. Time reported:2 "These predictions are culture-dependent and based on experience: someone raised on rock or Western classical music won't be able to predict the course of an Indian raga, for example, and vice versa. But if a piece develops in a way that's both slightly novel and still in line with our brain's prediction, we tend to like it a lot. And that, says [lead researcher] Salimpoor, 'is because we've made a kind of intellectual conquest.' Music may, in other words, tap into a brain mechanism that was key to our evolutionary progress. The ability to recognize patterns and generalize from experience, to predict what's likely to happen in the future -- in short, the ability to imagine -- is something humans do far better than any other animals. It's what allowed us (aided by the far less glamorous opposable thumb) to take over the world."
Why Music Makes Us Feel United: So far we've covered that music is involved in both emotional and intellectual centers of your brain, but music also has an, almost uncanny, ability to connect us to one another. Separate research published this month showed one reason for why this might be. When listening to four pieces of classical music they had never heard before, study participants' brains reacted in much the same way. Areas of the brain involved in movement planning, memory and attention all had similar activation patterns when the participants listened to the same music, which suggests we may each experience music in similar ways. The study's lead author noted:3 "We spend a lot of time listening to music -- often in groups, and often in conjunction with synchronized movement and dance ... Here, we've shown for the first time that despite our individual differences in musical experiences and preferences, classical music elicits a highly consistent pattern of activity across individuals in several brain structures including those involved in movement planning, memory and attention." ... "It's not our natural tendency to thrust ourselves into a crowd of 20,000 people, but for a Muse concert or a Radiohead concert we'll do it ... There's this unifying force that comes from the music, and we don't get that from other things."
Music Relieves Anxiety Better Than Drugs and Benefits Premature Babies: A meta-analysis by Levitin and colleagues found some striking benefits of music after reviewing 400 studies.5 Among the data was one study that revealed listening to music resulted in less anxiety and lower cortisol levels among patients about to undergo surgery than taking anti-anxiety drugs. Other evidence showed music has an impact on antibodies linked to immunity and may lead to higher levels of bacteria-fighting immune cells. Playing music in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) improved the health of premature babies with respiratory distress or sepsis.6 When parents sang to their babies, or sounds mimicking those in the womb were played, numerous benefits occurred, including changes in heart rates, sucking behavior and parents' stress levels. The researchers noted: "Entrained with a premature infant's observed vital signs, sound and lullaby may improve feeding behaviors and sucking patterns and may increase prolonged periods of quiet-alert states. Parent-preferred lullabies, sung live, can enhance bonding, thus decreasing the stress parents associate with premature infant care." Music is a therapeutic tool for babies and adults alike.
Childhood Music Lessons Have Neural Benefit Decades Later
More Evidence That Music Benefits the Brain
Medscape Medical News > Conference News
SAN DIEGO, California - A trio of new studies shows that musical training affects the structure and function of different regions of the brain, how those regions communicate during the creation of music, and how the brain processes different sensory stimuli.
These insights point to potential new roles for musical training, including fostering brain plasticity, providing an alternative educational tool, and treating learning disabilities, researchers say. The studies were presented here at Neuroscience 2013, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.
"Playing a musical instrument is a multisensory and motor experience that creates emotions and motions - from finger tapping to dancing - and engages pleasure and reward systems in the brain. It has the potential to change brain function and structure when done over a long period of time," Gottfried Schlaug, MD, PhD, from Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Boston, Massachusetts), an expert on music, neuroimaging, and brain plasticity, said in a conference statement.
These new findings show that "intense musical training generates new processes within the brain, at different stages of life, and with a range of impacts on creativity, cognition, and learning," said Dr. Schlaug, who moderated a press conference where the research was discussed.
Start Music Lessons Early
In one study, researchers found that musical training at a young age may strengthen the brain, especially regions that influence language skills and executive function.
Yunxin Wang, from the State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning at Beijing Normal University in China, and colleagues investigated the effects of music training on brain structure in 48 Han Chinese adults aged 19 to 21 years. All of them had had formal musical training for at least a year, beginning sometime between age 3 and 15.
After controlling for relevant cofactors, they found that the volume of brain regions related to hearing and self-awareness appeared to be larger in those who began taking music lessons before age 7. This hints that early musical training could potentially be used as a therapeutic tool, they say.
"Early musical training does more good for kids than just making it easier for them to enjoy music; it changes their brain and these brain changes could lead to cognitive advances as well. Our study provides evidence that early music training could change the structure of the brain's cortex," Wang noted in a conference statement.
"There is a lot of research showing that musical training has various cognitive benefits, such as better working memory, pitch discrimination performance, and selective attention," Wang told Medscape Medical News. The Biggest Medical News of the Year
"In our study we didn't include any behavioral data but as we found that onset age of musical training was correlated with brain structural changes in regions related to several cognitive functions, such as language production (lingual gyrus) and auditory ability (superior temporal gyrus), it might be possible that some specified musical training could be applied to education in the future," Wang said.
The study was supported by the China's Ministry of Education and National Natural Science Foundation.
A study published earlier this month showed that childhood music lessons have neural benefit decades later. As reported by Medscape Medical News, the researchers found that older adults who took music lessons as children but haven't actively played an instrument in decades have a faster brain response to a speech sound than individuals who never played an instrument.
Music Training Influences Multiple Senses
A second study presented at Neuroscience 2013 hints that musical training improves the ability of the nervous system to integrate information from multiple senses.
"Implications of these results are clearly in the rehabilitation field," Julie Roy, graduate student in speech pathology and audiology at the University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, told Medscape Medical News.
Prior research on the sensory impact of musical training has focused on audiovisual processing, she explained. Her study, she said, suggests a broader role for musical training in improving the ability of the nervous system to integrate information from all senses.
To gauge how musical training may affect multisensory processing, the researchers administered 2 tasks that simultaneously engage the sense of touch and hearing to a group of highly trained musicians and a group of nonmusicians.
Test results showed that musicians and nonmusicians had identical capabilities to detect and discriminate information based on a single sense, but the musicians were better able to separate auditory and tactile information. This finding suggests that long-term musical training influences multisensory processing, the researchers say.
"By finding that even though using different modalities and nonmusical stimuli, musicians still seem to have enhanced multisensory processing, we are one big step further down the road in affirming that musicians have overall enhanced multisensory processing," Roy told Medscape Medical News.
"We live in a multisensory environment where auditory and tactile information are processed together to give us the perception of the world as we know it. Knowing that musical training can indeed enhance this processing is of crucial importance when speaking about people with disability in one or both of those modalities, but even with people recovering from a stroke, for example, or diagnosed with a degenerating disease, or again, simply aging," she noted.
The study was supported by the Quebec Health Research Fund and the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
Musical Improv Strengthens Brain Circuits
A third study presented at the conference sheds light on the neural basis of musical creativity. The researchers used functional MRI to study neural correlates of musical improvisation in 39 professional pianists with varying degrees of improvisational training.
Ana Pinho, MS, from the Karolinksa Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and colleagues found that experienced improvisers showed increased functional connectivity with other motor, premotor, and prefrontal regions, after adjustment for age and general piano playing.
"The findings support that improvisation training has specific effects on neural networks involved in musical creativity. Extensive experience with improvisation is associated with lower levels of activity in frontal and parietal association areas, regions which are central for cognitive control, working memory, and explicit response selection, suggesting that generation of meaningful musical materials can be more automated or performed with less attentional effort," they explain in a meeting abstract.
The study was supported by the Swedish Research Council, Sven and Dagmar Salen Foundation, and Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia. Neuroscience 2013. Abstracts 550.13, 122.13, and 767.07. Presented November 11, 2013.
Graph showing volume level of 1983 CD: sound is not highly compressed or "maximized": notice the relative differences among the peaks and troughs and how the signal does not fill the entire graph: There is headroom.
How long do you enjoy listening, when everything is screaming loud?Graph showing volume level of 1999 CD: sound is totally ruined: notice how everything is shouting loud (and therefore nothing is relatively quiet) and how the signal is pushed unnaturally (and unpleasingly) to fill the entire graph. When the music blares at full blast no matter the number or volume of instruments is it still music? At least one entire dimension is lost, compressed into homogeneity.
"Some aspects of perceived sound quality are not explained by established theory. There is a growing suspicion that some of these aspects --a loss in natural timbre; a duller, less expressive performance; increased aural fatigue; and missing life and energy in reproduced sound-- may be consequences of the application of negative feedback. Many of us working in the audio industry have long been aware that measurements do not fully describe sound quality. Moreover, it seems that measurements fail to describe some of the more important aspects of subjective perception. For example, we may guarantee that an amplifier will have a perfectly flat frequency response under normal conditions of use, yet we cannot explain why it may still sound duller or brighter than another comparably 'flat' amplifier.
"We can measure crosstalk, channel separation, distortion, and noise to incredibly low levels, yet we cannot explain why some amplifiers have greater perceived stereo depth, resolution of detail, and low-level ambiance than others. While we know that 0.3-0.5% of third-harmonic distortion is just audible in the midrange, how can the overall sound of a tube amplifier be judged "just fine" when we can measure 1.5% of second harmonic and 0.8% of third at moderately high listening level? Still more intriguing is the matter of dynamics. Some electronics sound flattened and dulled in terms of musical expression; others may be wonderfully revealing of this quality even at quiet sound levels. Or consider rhythm and timing: One power amplifier gets your foot tapping, another leaves you reading the sleevenotes. I can identify no measurement associated with rhythm or musical dynamics.
I'm not claiming that spooky or mystical events occur when you listen to your system. ... Every link in the chain, from the vibration of your stylus to the goose bumps on your arms, is grounded in physical processes. ... But that doesn't mean that we understand exactly what those processes are - especially the ones inside the brain. ...
You can stand behind complicated truths or you can cling to simple mistakes. Those who feverishly insist that science tells us everything about audio treat science as an exact, finished product. But, any good scientist will tell you that there's much more in the world that we do not understand. Close examination almost always reveals increasing complexity. ...
Some dissenting scientists and engineers may not immediately appreciate good audio, much as people who go to museums but have no idea why Picasso, Pollock, or Rothko are good painters. They're seeing exactly what everyone sees, but they're seeing it quite differently. ... Some may never be able to see why Picasso is a great painter or appreciate high-end audio; they remain rigid, unconvinced and unconvincible.
"...the resistance actually varies with the voltage across the resistor. The resistance is actually different if you put 100V across the resistance than if it's got 0V across it. What that means to us is that if you put a 50V DC level across a [carbon-composition] resistor and a 100V sine wave superimposed on that, the sine wave will be measurably distorted by the resistor itself. We have resistor distortion. The distortion is pretty much pure second harmonic. In small amounts, you can't hear second harmonic as distortion, only a certain amount of "sweetening" or liquidity to the tone. That's what carbon comp resistor mojo really is...
On transformers and multiple output-taps: "Multiple output taps are inherently a serious compromise in performance. Inactive winding-segments are inevitable in a tapped transformer and result in additional leakage inductance that affects high-frequency response. ...the negative feedback loop is designed to encompass the whole transformer; tapping the secondary would upset the feedback ratio and cause only parts of the secondary to be used, which would result in sub-optimal power transfer. Speaker impedances vary with frequency; in order to have the optimal match it is best to choose a secondary impedance at the minimum impedance of the loudspeaker."
"Anecdotal evidence suggests that certain upsampling DACs sound better than others. This is to be expected based on the lack of understanding of why upsampling works,even by those who design upsampling DACs. In the light of the theory presented here, certain ultrasonic roll-off characteristics should provide a statistically more effectivesignal-dependent ultrasonic dither than other roll-off characteristics. In particular, enough ultrasonic image energy must be present to sufficiently dither the DAC all the way to the Nyquist frequency at the output sampling rate. Otherwise, the benefits of upsampling to very high output sampling rates will not be fully realized. On the other hand, too much ultrasonic energy can raise the noise floor of the DAC enough to be audible. It may turn out that a rigorous mathematical analysis of upsampling would discover an optimum digital upsampling filter characteristic that maximizes the effectiveness of the signal-dependent ultrasonic dither provided to the DAC. ... The sound quality of 44.1 kHz digital audio data can be dramatically improved by employing a 'poor' oversampling digital anti-imaging filter having a slow roll-off in place of a 'good' digital filter having a fast roll-off and a high stop band attenuation. It was shown that the ultrasonic images output by this 'poor' filter is responsible for the improved sound quality, reducing certain forms of non-linear distortion such as that due to the differential non-linearity found in all DACs. There may very well be other, subtler, forms of non-linear distortion in DACs, which may also be reduced by signal-dependent ultrasonic dither. In any case, there are certainly many other sources of non-linear distortion present in the signal chain. Some may question how such a small reduction in non-linear distortion due to differential non-linearity in DACs can be heard when much larger nonlinear distortions are generated by loudspeakers, for example. The answer is that the non-linear distortions in question, like jitter-induced non-linearities, are uniquely digital in origin. Such digital distortions have no counterpart in the analog domain. It can be argued that human hearing is much more sensitive to certain digital forms of distortion as compared to the more common distortions of analog origin. For example, it is widely recognized that very low levels of jitter are audible even in the presence of much larger levels of harmonic distortion generated by loudspeakers."Printed in 2000 and 2002, almost 20 years after "perfect" CD audio stormed the world, here's yet more late-coming evidence that the more we 'know', the more we don't quite understand, and that extremely minute and fleeting but highly unnatural distortions stand out starkly.
"Over the past two centuries, violins made by Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737) have been more favorably received by concert violinists and instrument collectors than instruments by any other maker. Some suggest that Stradivari's success can be attributed to unique tonal characteristics, generally described as brilliance ... modern research has yet to clearly identify acoustic differences between Stradivari violins and other professional quality instruments. Since both violin tones and spoken vowels are perceived through steady-state spectral features, we hypothesized that voice analysis techniques may help elucidate the tonal properties of violins. ...we examined the recorded scales of four Stradivari violins and ten other professional quality instruments, both old and new. On most violin notes, there are typically four or five resonance peaks (formants) below 5.5 kHz. Generally, professional quality violins exhibit formant frequencies (F1-F4) which are equidistant from the formants of male and female voices. But Stradivari violins tend to produce higher formants which are closer to female voices. Stradivari violins also show greater probabilities to emulate the formants of bright-sounding front vowels spoken by females, a tendency shared by other violins judged by concert violinists as having Strad-like tonal characteristics. Our results suggest that ... there are measurable and statistically significant differences between Stradivari violins and other professional quality violins in terms of formant features. Having higher formants or having formants that resemble female vowels may be acoustic correlates of the tonal qualities which concert violinists frequently associate with Stradivari violins."
Static Shock: The human body provides a small capacitance relative to the Earth ground, allowing build up of static electric charge. Discharge current is limited by tissue and skin impedance, modelled by a 100 pF capacitor in series with a 1.5 k Ohm resistor. Mundane actions can generate surprisingly high voltages, as shown in the following table (Motorola Power MOSFET Data Book):
Action: 10-20% rel. humidity 65-90% rel. humidity Walk, carpet: 35,000 Volts 1,500 Volts Pick up poly bag: 20,000 1,200 Move in foam chair: 18,000 1,500 Walk, vinyl floor: 12,000 250 Handle vinyl envelope: 7,000 600 Work at bench: 6,000 100
"Fluoro tubes also have directly-heated coated cathodes. Where I worked we made some really good quality inverters to allow 15 watt tubes to run from a 24 vdc supply. We paid close attention to pre-heating the cathodes before the high voltage was applied to the tube. In one particular test that ran for about 6 weeks, on a 3 seconds on, 7 seconds off basis we got over 350,000 starts(!) from the tube before we gave up and decided it was good enough. Tube was still running OK. We then tried it using using no preheat time and the tube would fail in about 2 days. During the test you could see the tube ends gradually going black from the cathode material being splattered on the inside surface of the glass. Gradually the emission would be concentrated in a smaller and smaller area of the filament and it would eventually melt and go open circuit at this point. Not exactly the same as a high-vacuum valve but from that it would seem the best way to protect your expensive bottles is to get the cathodes up to operating temperature, then ease the HT on over several seconds."
"How much energy is required to strip an electron from an atom? Who knows BUT this experience sort of relates: I run a 14 dynode photomultiplier tube with 2200 volts anode to cathode as the sensor in the receiver of a Laser Airborne Depth Sounder System (Hydrographic Survey). As the tubes age and some gas gets in we see increasing "afterpulsing". This is when a "photo" electron being accelerated up the tube, toward the anode, hits a residual gas atom (probably Helium), stripping off an electron and turning it into a positively charged ion. This ion is then accelerated back the other direction and smashes into the photocathode, busting loose a few electrons which then acccelerate up to the anode, causing a false "after pulse". Space charge saturation (electron cloud) around the cathode won't do anything to impede a positively charged ion getting back to the cathode. I've been trying to get the photomultiplier tube manufacturer to add a Titanium getter for years - Titanium has a HUGE affinity for Helium. As it is we just change the tube every 3 to 4 years (maximum)."
John Atwood: "Cathode stripping isn't really a literal stripping of the cathode, but, as mentioned earlier, a bombardment of the cathode by positively-charged ions at a point during warm-up where there is enough cathode emission to start a flow of electrons, but not enough to form a "space charge" around the cathode, which tends to protect it from the positive ions. Since the ions have a large mass relative to the electron, they can physically damage the cathode coating, which is quite fragile. When the cathode is activated during manufacturing, trace elements migrate to the surface and create the efficient electron emitting layer. Without activation, an oxide-coated cathode is essentially inert. Also, certain ions, such as sodium and sulphur, can "poison" the cathode, causing much worse damage than just routine stripping. The usual effect of cathode stripping is a shortening of the useful life of the tube, although rectifiers can create fireworks inside during warm-up. Thoriated-tungsten cathodes are also susceptible to cathode stripping, since they have a monatomic layer of thorium on top of the tungsten that can be damaged by positive ions. However, by running the cathode over temperature, new thorium can migrate to the surface. The schedule for re-activating thoriated-tunsten tubes differs, depending if the filament is "carburized" or not. I believe that most modern thoriated tungsten tubes (211, 845, 811A, etc.) are carburized. Pure tungsten filaments are immune to cathode stripping, but these are rare and were only used for very high-voltage tubes. Contrary to the urban myth, gas (at least our atmosphere) doesn't leak through glass. Helium can permeate through glass, but is rather slow. According to Kohl's Materials and Techniques for Electron Tubes (1960), the permeation velocity of helium at 100 degrees C through lime glass (used for the bulb) is about 10E-13. (Permeation velocity is ml of gas per second per cm^2 per mm of thickness.) Atmospheric gasses are essentially impermeable. Most gas in a tube comes from degassing of glass and metals caused by heating during operation. The getter coating does work all the time, but will work better at higher temperatures, up to a point. Gas is reduced in a tube during operation by a process called "clean-up" which is essentially the gas molecules getting trapped in the plate by electrons hitting the plate. An existence proof of the impermeability of glass are the N.O.S. tubes from the 1920s and 30s that work just fine out of the box. A delayed B+ turn-on is a good idea, especially for power tubes. An alternative, which I have used in some of my designs, is to apply a high negative bias to the grid during warm-up, then after a delay, drop the bias to the normal level. With the high bias, the tube is cut-off, and any stray positive ions would go to the grid, thus the cathode is protected. This works well with the Amperite thermal time delay relays, which cannot handle much current."
See also John Harper's research into Filament Heating
"The reduced thermal stress may increase tube life (although see below), but it may also reduce it. Unless the B+ supply has a delay, the period while the cathode is warming up will result in operation in saturated mode, where the plate current is equal to the emitted current and there is no space-charge of electrons surrounding the cathode. It is widely believed that this contributes to a phenomenon known as "cathode stripping", where the oxide coating on the cathode is damaged by impact from positively-charged ions resulting from high-energy collisions between electrons and residual gas molecules."
"Recently I wanted to join the ranks of those who play their effects signal separately from their main signal, the benefits include a better control of the volume of the two signals as well as a huge sound stage..."
Vacuum Tube and Guitar and Bass Amplifier Servicing By Tino Zottola -- Page 63, Table 6
|Consumer||European||Military||Good Sub||Mediocre Sub|
|5U4||GZ31, GZ32||5R4, 5931||5AR4, 5V3, 5AU4, 5T4|
|6L6||EL37, KT66||5881||6932, 7582, STR415||1622|
|6V6||7408, 5871, 7184||5992||6U6|
|12AT7||ECC81||6060, 6201, 6679, 7728||6671, 7492||12AU7, 12AX7, 12AZ7|
|12AU7||ECC82||5814, 6067, 6189||ECC186||12AT7, 12AX7, 5963|
|12AX7||ECC83||6057, 6681, 7025, 7729||12AY7, 5751, ECC803||12AT7, 12AU7, 12AZ7, 12DT7, 12DF7|
|12AZ7||12AT7, 6060, 62301, 6679, 7728, ECC81|
"Electromagnetic guitar pickups are very poorly understood. This sequential lateral engineering analysis shows how they really work, how to shape the spectrum for any pickup and blows the sales myths beyond reality into figures that are highly predictable... To me, there is absolutely no doubt that body/neck resonance plays a major part of colouring the sound from a stringed musical instrument, if the body has, or is, a resonator, but with a solid body guitar the sound is barely resonant and there is minimum inter-string coupling compared to an hollow/resonator body, and further the fact is that simply holding the instrument considerably damps any resonances in both the body and the neck. ... I am well aware that variations in guitar construction can make differences to the sound, but I am far more acutely aware that subtle differences in sound also start with the construction standards of a pickup - not whether it has been dipped in wax or whatever, but by subtle differences in the coil construction or magnetic circuit can make a profound difference to the sensitivity and spectral response of the pickup. "
"Many years ago, I asked a luthier (professional instrument maker) how he calculated the placement of the frets on a guitar. He replied, 'A fret is 17.8% of the distance from the bridge to the previous fret,' but he didn't know why. The answer is that frets are placed according to a trigonometric function of the twelfth root of two, the understanding of which takes us into higher mathematics, relative to the study of acoustics, spectral analysis and string theory. This knowledge was not necessary for a monk to string a harp, for a peasant to fret a lute, for King David to build a psaltery, or for me to design a just-intoned guitar."
"Having precise musical ratios and specific notes, in cycles per second, provides the information necessary to construct an instrument. The fret placements are calculated by inverting the fractions and multiplying the length of the string. So, if the string is 25 inches, tuned to A at 440 cycles per second, the interval is 110 and the next note in the chord is C# at 550 cps, so C# has a note ratio of 5/4. The fret is then placed at 4/5 of 25 or 20 inches from the bridge and 5 inches from the nut. This follows another ancient saying, 'As Above, So Below, but Vice-Versa.'"
"The application of ratios in the creation of music and the making of instruments was so prevalent that way back in 325 AD at the Council of Nicaea, the Church banned a specific ratio, known as the 'Devil's Interval.' Also known as the 'Tritone,' it is the ratio of 32/45 or 45/64, in modern notation F/B or B/F. Playing the notes together results in a discordant tone that 'sounds like the devil.'"
"A number of ancient buildings have been constructed to display harmonic proportions in stone. These include the Great Pyramid of Giza, (2500BC) which connects Phi with Pi, aligning it to the sun, moon and stars. The Egyptian Temple of Luxor (1360 BC) is built as a gigantic musical instrument, with advanced knowledge of acoustics, to mix Earth vibrations with the singing of temple worshippers. The Greek Parthenon, (440BC) was designed on the 'Golden Ratio,' which was renamed 'Phi' after its architect, Phidias. The Cathedral at Chartres, France, (1200 AD) also containing the Phi ratio, is one of eighty gothic cathedrals built during the 12th century. Like Luxor, it was designed with harmonic proportions to resonate with the singing of the choir."
"Both the sounds and shapes are purely geometric and, I discovered, have historically been used for meditation and healing. For over ten years I suffered chronic pain in my right side. After numerous tests, no cause or cure was found. I discovered one evening while sitting in a chair playing my guitar that I could feel the vibrations of certain chords traveling from the strings through the wood body into my hipbone and then to the source of the pain in the soft tissues. After strumming a particular six-note chord for about 40 minutes, the pain subsided. Whenever it returned over the next week or two I strummed again until it completely went away. I would have never believed that such a thing could occur had I not experienced it myself. Since then I've discovered several other people who have witnessed a similar phenomenon, including musicologist Don Campbell, who has connected with Marianjoy Rehabilitation Center, in Wheaton, Illinois, to explore the potential of musical healing therapies."
The 'Best Amp' is unique, not yours, and you wouldn't trade for it? -- Ken Fischer (Trainwreck Amp), 2005: "...there isn't a "correct" Trainwreck schematic. Commonly I would change things from amp to amp to suit the buyers style and guitars. Also, it is very common for me to build one of a kind, or two of a kind amp designs. I'd also "hot rod" my standard models just for fun...Once I had a tune up "clinic" at my place with six Express amp owners. We did a secret vote on our personal favorite out of the six. Keep in mind that of course I had built all six. The one I picked as best wasn't picked as best by anyone else! Boy, did that make me a dummy! Nobody picked their own amp as best! Two guys picked each others amp as best but refused to trade when I suggested it." ampgarage | archive
"Players have known about some of the quirks of nylon guitar strings since their introduction after WWII. In particular, new strings tend to decrease in frequency and need to be re-tuned repeatedly in the first few days of use as they stretch. This paper presents data on new strings in which the tension is held constant and the string length is allowed to vary - essentially the reverse of the condition on the guitar where the length is held fixed and the tension changes. The frequencies of monofilament nylon strings were observed to vary cyclically. This effect is not clearly explained by common expressions for resonant frequencies of stretched strings and may require a more sophisticated model for nylon strings under tension."
"Guitar playing is a Spiritual Art, for it is a musickal form of both Magick and Alchemy. It is a creative manipulation of the Elements of Nature and an artistic transmutation of Universal Forces through the skillful use of the hands and sound. It effects changes in both the player and the listener. With a proper understanding of both the technical and spiritual aspects of playing the Guitar, one is able to use the Guitar as an efficient instrument of the Will to create internal and external changes. The Guitar has its own Science, both conventional and unconventional in kind...
"Now the Guitar in its fundamental form is in the shape of a woman's body. This is significant from both the Occult and Psychological point-of-view. For Woman represents the Psyche or Soul of Nature, and the Guitar therefore symbolizes this same Divine Principle, called Neschamah in the Esoteric Science of the Qabalah. Neschamah, or the Universal Soul, pertains to the third Sephira called Binah (Understanding) on the Tree of Life in the Spiritual Wisdom of the Qabalah. This is the Sephira of the Goddess BABALON, who is the Divine Archetype of Woman in Magickal Philosophy. The Guitar is the musical symbol of BABALON.
"The Guitar is a Weapon of Musick for the Goddess BABALON. It is a Mystical Axe, a Divine Bow, a Spiritual Sword, and a Magickal Gun, but the only bullets fired from this gun are nirvanic sounds of Musick to which we are all defenseless. No one can escape the beauty and majesty and mystery of the melodies and harmonies and colors of Guitar Musick. We can all be penetrated and entranced by a Guitar song. It is the perfect musical instrument, capable of penetrating the very Soul of us all.
"Historically, the first form of the Guitar dates back to ancient Babylonia, but the actual roots of the Guitar (as we know it today) are in Spain, and it is an evolution of other stringed instruments from other parts of the world. In A.D. 711 the Moors (Dark Muslims) invaded Spain from North Africa bringing with them a stringed instrument which, after being integrated with other similar stringed instruments, developed into the classical Guitar (as we know it today) during the 19th Century. The classical Guitar - and its consequent classical sounds - is the foundation of the Spirit of the Guitar.
"From the classical Guitar developed the acoustic folk Guitar which became an integral part of the Musick of the African American Blues players (Blues is the primary core of Rock 'n' Roll or Rock Musick) during the early part of the 20th Century. Then, born out of the mother of necessity, the acoustic Guitar transformed into the revolutionary invention of the Electric Guitar. And the Electric Guitar became the very essence and driving force of 20th Century Musick, which it continually defined and redefined, and it continues to do so into our own apocalyptic 21st Century. It gave to all of us a whole new form and era of Musick and it has now become the most played instrument in the world.
"There is a collective, magickal and spiritual significance attached to the Electric Guitar. For the Spiritual Guitarist, it is the numinous Instrument of Lucifer, the Hammer of Thor, the Thunderbolt of Zeus, the Caduceus of Hermes, the Sword of the Warrior, the Stone of the Philosophers, and the Wand of the Magician. It has become the major Weapon of Sound in Musick and a dynamic symbol for the Spirit of Freedom and Independence since around the middle of the 20th Century, and it will continue to do so into the future!
"Now there are twenty-two frets on the Electric Guitar (not including the so-called open fret), and these may be linked with the twenty-two Trumps or Atus from the Book of Thoth (22 Major Arcana of Tarot or the Tarot Cards 0-XXI) and the twenty-two Paths on the Qabalistic Tree of Life which symbolize the Elemental, Astrological and Planetary Forces of the Universe. It should also be noted that in Occult Numerology the number twenty-two represents the Circle of Infinity. The mystical fretboard of the Electric Guitar can be compared to a Circle of Infinity, containing as it does a variety of sounds which may be manipulated in a variety of ways to produce an infinite variety of Musick.
"The Guitar has six strings in all. Six is the sacred number of the Sun who, in Greek Mythology, was represented by Apollo, the Greek God of Musick and Poetry. The first type of Guitar (Lyre) created by Hermes was given to Apollo who then became a Master of the instrument and it also became one of his sacred symbols. Now in magickal symbolism the Sun is primarily a masculine or Male Force, thus the Guitar, though it has the body of a female and represents the feminine or Female Force (the Moon), it also, by extension of the Six Strings, contains within itself the Male Force, as Yin contains Yang in the Oriental Philosophy, or as the Neschamah of the Qabalah contains the Chiah. The Guitar proper is both the body and the strings of the instrument. Without the strings, the body of the Guitar can produce no Musick. Also, note in this connection the phallic shape of the Guitar neck upon which the hand moves up and down; it is a masculine symbol attached to and united with a feminine form (the Guitar body). The Guitar proper is both Yin and Yang, Female and Male, Moon and Sun, Darkness and Light, and so on down the list of Complementary Forces. It is the unity of these two essential parts of the Guitar that makes Musick!
"There are seven Natural Tones or Notes in Musick and, with the five Sharps and Flats (the so-called Accidental Notes), we have Twelve Tones in all that we can play in various positions and octaves on the Guitar. Both the numbers, seven and twelve, have great significance in Magick, Alchemy, Astrology, the Qabalah, Yoga, and in other Esoteric Systems and Philosophies and Religions. They are universally sacred numbers and they cover a lot of divine ground. But for now, regarding the seven Natural Tones (A, B, C, D, E, F and G), it should be noted that they correspond with the seven Colors of the Spectrum, the seven Chakras of Yoga, the seven Metals of Alchemy, and with the Sun, Moon, and the Planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. (The five Sharps and Flats [A#/Bb, C#/Db, D#/Eb, F#/Gb and G#/Ab] correspond with the five Elements of Fire, Water, Air, Earth, and Spirit.) Also, in all, the twelve tones correspond with the twelve Zodiacal Signs of Astrology (Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces) which, like the Sun, Moon and Planets, represent Spiritual Forces of Nature. Playing any of the twelve notes on the Guitar, melodically or harmonically, is a musickal invocation of the mystical colors and spiritual energies of the Sun, Moon and Planets, and the Astrological and Elemental Forces of Nature.
"Guitar playing can also be linked with certain principles in the Martial Arts, which is more than a physical art form, but also a Spiritual Philosophy for the true Warrior. This includes, more so than most realize, the Art of Karate. Let us, for example, consider the Ki and Kata. The sounds produced from the Guitar are a projection of the Ki of the guitarist. Ki is the Energy of the Soul and the Soundless Sound within the guitarist, the actual spiritual source of the Musick that s/he projects. Ki can also be defined (and realized) as "feeling" and "spirit" or, in more musickal terms, "expression" or "emotion." (Emotion is a state of feeling.) Learning to properly play on the Guitar fretboard is primarily the result of learning to effectively play the Scales and Chords of Musick on the Guitar with feeling, spirit, expression or emotion. The Scales and Chords are similar to the Kata (Martial Arts Ritual) done with the hand and fingers. The enemy is, of course, none other than the self. (The real enemy is within.) And the weapon of the guitarist is his or her Guitar which is primarily mastered through the Guitar Kata (Scales and Chords). The Martial Arts is "Moving Zen" or Active Meditation. The same is true when playing the Guitar. As every experienced guitarist will testify, playing the Guitar is a meditation or act of Yoga unto itself, one in which both subject and object disappear from consciousness, and Musick is the result. (I refer you to the book, "Zen Guitar," by Philip Toshio Sudo, which will give you a more expanded view point of the metaphorical relationships between Guitar playing and the Martial Arts. This book is one of a kind and worth every penny you will pay for it.)
"Lastly, Musick is a spiritual, mystical and magickal art form. It originated as such and slowly developed through time into a theoretical and technical Science. As with any art form thus developed, it lost a large portion of its spiritual orientation and has become, for the most part, a rather mundane art form practiced by unenlightened folk. But the Scales of Karma must be balanced: the spiritual aspect of Musick must arise from the darkness, and Musick will become more of what it is intended to be, that is a creative means for the Universal Spirit to express itself and a powerful means for humanity to invoke and receive the divine Guidance and Illumination of the Spirit, and it will naturally become a Way to Enlightenment itself for both the inner and outer circles of men and women. Magick and music will once again combine, becoming one, and humanity will be raised higher on the Mystic Mountain of Illumination. The main musickal instrument in this spiritual evolutionary process will prove to be the Guitar, as it has already proven itself to be in the past couple of decades. Many yet unknown effects and means for playing the Guitar will manifest in the future by Magicians and Alchemists and Wizards and Warriors of the Guitar, adding to its already existing vast treasure house of unique and powerful sound, and it will come to be recognized as one of the greatest weapons and instruments of power in the shaping of the New Age of Freedom that is now upon us!"
In 1916, Hawaiin music albums were outselling all others in the USA.
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"Integrated circuit engineers have the luxury of taking for granted that the incremental cost of a transistor is essentially zero, and this has led to the high-device-count circuits that are common today. Of course, this situation is a relatively recent development; during most of the history of electronics, the economics of circuit design were the inverse of what they are today. It really wasn't all that long ago when an engineer was forced by the relatively high cost of active devices to try to get blood (or at least rectification) from a stone. And it is indeed remarkable just how much performance radio pioneers were able to squeeze out of just a handful of components. For example, we'll see how American radio genius Edwin Armstrong devised circuits in the early 1920's that trade log of gain for bandwidth, contrary to the conventional wisdom that gain and bandwidth should trade off more or less directly. And we'll see that at the same time Armstrong was developing those circuits, self-taught Soviet radio engineer Oleg Losev was experimenting with blue LEDs and constructing completely solid-state radios that functioned up to 5MHz, a quarter century before the transistor was invented. These fascinating stories are rarely told because they tend to fall into the cracks between history and engineering curricula. Somebody ought to tell these stories, though, since in so doing, many commonly-asked questions get answered automatically. This highly nonlinear history of radio touches brie?y on just some of the main stories, and provides pointers to the literature for those who want to probe further.
Interesting, relates to "Orgone" energy, generator? "For his radio experiments Marconi simply copied Hertz's transmitter and tinkered like crazy with the sole intent to use the system for wireless communication (and not incidentally to make a lot of money in the process). Recognizing the inherent limitations of Hertz's spark-gap detector, he instead used a bizarre creation that had been developed by Edouard Branly in 1890. As seen in Figure 1 the device, dubbed the "coherer" by Sir Oliver Lodge, consisted of a glass enclosure filled with a loosely packed, perhaps slightly oxidized metallic powder, whose resistance turned out to have interesting hysteretic behavior. Now, it must be emphasized that the detailed principles that underlay the operation of coherers have never been satisfactorily elucidated. Nevertheless, we can certainly describe its behavior, even if we don't fully understand all the details of how it worked. Under large-signal excitation, the filings could be seen to stick together (hence the name "coherer"), and it's not hard to understand the drop in resistance in that case. However, apparently unknown to most authors, the coherer also worked with input energies so small that no such "coherence" is observed, so I assert that the detailed principles of operation remain unknown. A coherer's resistance generally had a large value (say, megohms) in its quiescent state, and then dropped orders of magnitude (to kilohms or less) after an EM wave impinged on it. This large resistance change was usually used to trigger a solenoid to produce an audible click, as well as to ink a paper tape for a permanent record of the received signal. To prepare the coherer for the next EM pulse, it had to be shaken or whacked to restore the "incoherent" high resistance state."
"Indeed, the days of the old-fashioned component stereo system are pretty much over", says Alan Penchansky, an audiophile and former columnist for the music trade publication Billboard. "What's happened in the marketplace, the midmarket for audio has completely been obliterated," he says. "You have this high-end market that's getting smaller all the time, and then you've got the convenience market, which has taken over -- the MP3s, the Bluetooth devices, playing on laptops." He wishes more people knew what they were missing. At its best, he says, audio reproduction has "a religious aspect." "There's a primacy to audio," he says. "It's a form of magic." ...the history of audio technology has often been one of convenience. cnn
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Last modified 8 Mar 2020